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Psychodynamic Summary


This could be considered as inconsistent with the real intentions of the religious belief, or it might show lack of respect for the spiritual autonomy of others. The "good faith" of people is then taken advantage of, in ways that involve some kind of deceit, or some dubious, selfish motive. The term spiritual opportunism is also used in the sense of casting around for suitable spiritual beliefs borrowed and cobbled together in some way to justify, condemn or "make sense of" particular ways of behaving, usually with some partisan or ulterior motive.

This may not be abusive, but it often gives rise to criticisms or accusations [45] that the given spiritual beliefs:. Supporters of traditional religions such as Christianity , Islam , Hinduism or Buddhism sometimes complain that people such as New Age enthusiasts seek out spiritual beliefs that serve only themselves , as a form of "spiritual opportunism". Such complaints are often highly controversial, because people are considered to have the right to their own spiritual beliefs they may not have that right, to the extent that they are socially excluded unless they profess certain spiritual beliefs, but they may only subscribe "formally" or "outwardly" to them.

Spiritual opportunism sometimes refers also to the practice of proselytizing one's spiritual beliefs when any opportunity to do so arises, for the purpose of winning over, or persuading others, about the superiority of these beliefs.

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In this context, the spiritual opportunist may engage in various actions, themselves not directly related to the spiritual beliefs, with the specific aim of convincing others of the superiority of his own belief system — it may effectively amount to "buying their support". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Taking advantage of circumstances. Main article: Intellectual opportunism.

Main article: Sexual opportunism. Main article: Political opportunism. Main article: Economic opportunism. Main article: Legal opportunism. Main article: Spiritual opportunism. Donald L. Wall Street Journal , 17 January New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, The French Opportunists did not call themselves by this name; rather, the term was used by French radicals to describe centrist and centre-left politics in the country. Financial Times , December 9, The Meaning of Mitterrand. Oxford University Press, , p. Perhaps the quote referred back to a line in John Milton 's Paradise Lost according to which it is, "Better to reign in Hell than to serve in Heaven.

What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less then he Whom Thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence Here we may reign secure, and in my choyce To reign is worth ambition though in Hell Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav'n.

Financial times , February 16, The Boston Globe , 13 december Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, , p. Sociology , vol.

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Australian Journal of Zoology : Retrieved 5 June Caroline B. Glick, "Column one: Israel's premier opportunist".

In: Jerusalem Post , 22 July Al Alakhbar English , 28 March Chen, Mike W. Peng, Patrick A. In: Journal of Management , Vol. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Leonard, "The price is wrong: causes and consequences of ethical restraint in trade. Forbes Magazine , 28 April Foss and Peter G. Klein, "Critiques of transaction cost economics: An overview". CS1 maint: archived copy as title link ; Paul J. Zak ed. Princeton University Press, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, , p.

Princeton University Press, , p. Redefining their boundaries: conversations with economists and sociologists. Princeton: Princeton University Press, , p. Moscow: Progress Publishers, Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, Steven Mufson and Jia Lynn Yang, "Capital gains tax rates benefiting wealthy feed growing gap between rich and poor", in: Washington Post , 12 September Heide Gerstenberger, Impersonal Power: History and theory of the bourgeois state.

Haymarket Books, Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, Leiden: Brill, , p. Lenin, "Opportunism, and the Collapse of the Second International", Archived from the original on University of Warsaw, c. The surprise is that those who are not rich vote for such people, even though they should know from bitter experience that the rich will continue to rip off the rest of us.

Perhaps the reason is that rich men are very clever at covering up what they do. Chicago Sun-Times , 18 February Prometheus Books, This result appears to corroborate our hypothesis that moral judgement competence does not lead to less delinquent behaviour in homeless youth. Other factors than moral judgement could, however, be more powerful in explaining delinquent behaviour in homeless youth. Secondly, in the homeless group delin- quency correlates negatively with social support and attachment 2 0.

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Correlations between independent and dependent variables for residential youth n 5 83, lower left triangle and homeless youth n 5 79, upper right triangle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1. Age of separation 0. Parenting style 2 0. Social support 0. Attachment-individuation 0. Attachment security 2 0. Neuroticism 0.

Passive coping 0. Active coping 2 0. Moral reasoning 0. Delinquency 2 0. This last result also holds for the residential group 0. W e began the analysis with the homeless youth group. Table II. In the third step we entered perceived social support and three attachment variables, i. In the fourth step we entered passive coping, active coping and neuroticism.

Moral judgement was en- tered in the last step. The cumulative R 2 indicates the total amount of variance accounted for by the variables in the equation. Homeless youth reported a great deal more delinquent behaviour than residential youth, on all behavioural scales: petty crime, vandalism, violence and rebellious behaviour towards police authorities. In the homeless youth group this difference is absent. As residential youth and homeless youth differed on all four kinds of delinquent behaviour, it seems unlikely that this result can be attributed to the economic life condition and economic survival needs of the homeless youth.

Instead, it should probably be attributed to the lack of stable social relationships and social support that characterises homeless youth. Using multiple regression analysis, important characteristics predicting delin- quent behaviour in the homeless youth group, besides being male, are: a restrictive and affectionless parenting style, predominance of individuation over attachment and a passive coping style. This may be due to a restriction of range in moral judgement scores in our sample.

Whereas delinquents usually reason at a score level below Smetana, , in our sample the lowest moral judgement score is Multiple regression analysis cannot directly support our hypothesis that the lack of stable relationships and social support which characterises the life condition of homeless youth explains 1 the difference between both groups in delinquent behaviour and 2 the lack of difference in delinquent behaviour between precon- ventional and conventional homeless youth.

However, the results of the multiple regression analysis point to the importance of moderator variables related to the life condition of individuals. A restrictive and affectionless parenting style can result in a lack of moral internalisation, with affect and cognition not being integrated. However, this lack of moral internalisation does not need to act exclusively on behaviour through a delay in moral judgement development.

Rest, The importance of a lack of social support for moral behaviour may be more prominent in these components than in moral cognition. Finally, we want to consider the implications the results of our study may have for moral education. From the perspective of the prevention of antisocial behaviour, stimulating moral judgement development in residential youth could be an effective approach. A higher level of moral judgement could keep these youngsters from becoming involved in this type of behaviour. In the homeless youth group, stimulating the development of moral judgement should be part of a comprehensive treatment and social rehabilitation programme which focuses on building trustful relationships.

The peer-helping approach of Gibbs et al. Unger et al. Acknowledgement The authors are indebted to the insight and suggestions of an anonymous referee. Correspondence: L. Tavecchio, G. Stams or M.

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Notes [1] All subjects received 25 Dutch guilders for their co-operation. This lack of reliability seems to correlate with duration of homelessness, and needs to be explored further. Handleiding bij een m ultidimensionele psycho- pathologie-indicator [Manual for a multidimensional indicator of psychopathology] Lisse, The Netherlands, Swets Test Services. Attachment, rev. Theoretical foundations and research validation Cam bridge, Cambridge University Press. Contemporary Topics in Developm ental Psychology, pp.

The collective management of reputation Oxford, Blackwell. Krieger Publishing Company. Cognitive Defects in the Development of M ental Illness, pp. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, pp.

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DE M orele oordelen in ontwikkelings- en opvoedingsperspectief. Hypothesen van Lawrence Kohlberg verkend en getoetst [Moral judgement from a developmental and educational perspective. R EST, J. Manual of Child Psychology, J. Related Papers. Ironically, in a book promoting legalized abortion, Dr.

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The doctor would find no argument from former U. Surgeon General C. If a mother is willing, as nearly all mothers are, to assume some, if not significant, personal risk for the welfare of her post-partum child, how could she deny her enwombed child the same consideration? The child in both cases is a genetically complete and unique human being; they differ only in stage of development, as a newborn from a toddler, a toddler from a teen, a teen from an adult.

Instead, less than six years post- Roe , the number of abortions doubled from over , to over 1,, Given that the pro-life movement is primarily made up of Christians, double-mindedness in the camp can be placed squarely on the doorstep of the Church.